Social Reform The s and s saw a great rise in popular politics, as free white males achieved universal suffrage. Women, blacks, and Native Americans, however, remained excluded from the political process and were often neglected by politicians. In protest, these marginalized groups and their sympathizers organized reform movements to heighten public awareness and to influence social and political policy.
Jan 1, Utopia written in A novel by Thomas More, Utopia inspired the descriptions of 19th century reform movements. Utopian settlements were attempts to perfect society. These attempts were often viewed as impossible plans. Jan 1, The Rappites George Rapp created one of the earliest known utopian communities.
Its members were known as the Rappites. A small community, the Rappites failed to sustain a large population. Most were not eager to join a group with very strong views on very controversial topics. Jan 1, New Lanark, Scotland Largest Cotton Manufacturer An influential secular communitarian, Robert Owen was a British factory owner who strived to create an economically efficient and worker-friendly environment.
New Harmony greatly influenced the goal of creating a community of equals, despite existing for a short time. Many people became offended by the seemingly aggressive attitude of the Temperance Movement.
This created yet another divide between 19th century Americans. Jan 1, Brook Farm Established Created near Boston by transcendentalists, Brook Farm attempted to allow manual and intellectual labor to coexist. A very well organized community, Brook Farm experienced difficulties over time.
It generally attracted intellectual people who disliked manual labor. Brook farm was disbanded a few years after its establishment. Being an anarchist, Warren left these communities unregulated. Goods were traded based on the effort of creating them in order to avoid bankers and merchants draining the income of others.
The goal of these communities was absolute freedom. Polygamy and the lack of separation between church and state pushed the Mormons westward.
There they established a settlement on the Great Salt Lake to practice Mormonism in peace.
Jan 1, Oneida is Established Founded by John Noyes inresidents Oneida believed in the ability of humans to reach moral perfection. Although, similar to the Shakers in several aspects, followers of Noyes strived to become a single family and drew criticism for their practice of complex marriage.
This resulted in the movement of the group to Oneida, NY. Over time, Oneida became an extremely strict society which even practiced eugenics. The community lasted until Examine the emergence of temperance as a major issue in the s and s, and explain the role of women in the temperance movement.
4. Discuss the emergence of utopian communities in American society between and , and explain the characteristics and goals of at least three such communities.
Religious and Utopian communities dotted the countryside during the s. The founders of Brook Farm tried to create a society of equality for its members. Gradually, utopian communities came to reflect social perfectibility rather than religious purity. Reform and Politics in the Age of Jackson, – LEARNING OBJECTIVES After you have studied Chapter 11 in your textbook and worked through this study guide chapter, you should be able to: 1.
Discuss the causes, characteristics, and consequences of the Second Great Awakening. 2. The temperance movement of the early nineteenth century advocated for alcohol moderation, or a more level attitude toward alcohol, rather than complete abstinence.
The movement gained popularity in the s with a renewed emphasis on religious reform. The Temperance Movement was an organized effort during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to limit or outlaw the consumption and production of alcoholic beverages in the United States.
Utopian communities aimed to perfect social relationships; reform the institutions of marriage and private property; and balance political, occupational, and religious influences. Most utopian communities did not last beyond the early s, but one, the Oneida community in New York, survived from to