Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC.
Former Roman provinces Thrace and Commagena made client states by Caligula. In AD 40, Caligula expanded the Roman Empire into Mauretania and made a significant attempt at expanding into Britannia — even challenging Neptune in his campaign.
The conquest of Britannia was fully realized by his successors.
Mauretania[ edit ] Mauretania was a client kingdom of Rome ruled by Ptolemy of Mauretania. Caligula invited Ptolemy to Rome and then suddenly had him executed.
Cassius Dio wrote an entire chapter on the annexation of Mauretania by Caligula, but it is now lost. Modern historians have put forward numerous theories in an attempt to explain these actions.
This trip to the English Channel could have merely been a training and scouting mission. Ancient resources as well as recent archaeological evidence suggest that, at one point, Caligula had the palace extended to annex this structure. When several client kings came to Rome to pay their respects to him and argued about their nobility of descent, he allegedly cried out the Homeric line: Caligula began appearing in public dressed as various gods and demigods such as HerculesMercuryVenus and Apollo.
Caligula had the heads removed from various statues of gods located across Rome and replaced them with his own. According to Cassius Dioliving emperors could be worshipped as divine in the east and dead emperors could be worshipped as divine in Rome.
Aiding him in his actions was his good friend, Herod Agrippawho became governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis after Caligula became emperor in AD Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus.
Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists. Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him.
Agrippa was rewarded with his territories. In Rome, another statue of himself, of colossal size, was made of gilt brass for the purpose. The reverse shows Caligula's three sisters, Agrippina, Drusilla and Julia Livilla, with whom Caligula was rumoured to have carried on incestuous relationships.
Scandals[ edit ] Cameo depicting Caligula and a personification of Rome Philo of Alexandria and Seneca the Youngercontemporaries of Caligula, describe him as an insane emperor who was self-absorbed, angry, killed on a whim, and indulged in too much spending and sex.
They accuse Caligula of incest with his sisters, Agrippina the YoungerDrusillaand Livillaand say he prostituted them to other men. In Roman political culture, insanity and sexual perversity were often presented hand-in-hand with poor government.
The prospect of Rome losing its emperor and thus its political power was the final straw for many. Such a move would have left both the Senate and the Praetorian Guard powerless to stop Caligula's repression and debauchery.
With this in mind Chaerea convinced his fellow conspirators, who included Marcus Vinicius and Lucius Annius Vinicianusto put their plot into action quickly. The Germanic guard, stricken with grief and rage, responded with a rampaging attack on the assassins, conspirators, innocent senators and bystanders alike.
The cryptoporticus underground corridor beneath the imperial palaces on the Palatine Hill where this event took place was discovered by archaeologists in After a soldier, Gratusfound Claudius hiding behind a palace curtain, he was spirited out of the city by a sympathetic faction of the Praetorian Guard  to their nearby camp.
He ordered the execution of Chaerea and of any other known conspirators involved in the death of Caligula. He was buried within the Mausoleum of Augustus ; induring the Sack of Romethe ashes in the tomb were scattered.
Historiography[ edit ] Fanciful renaissance depiction of Caligula The history of Caligula's reign is extremely problematic as only two sources contemporary with Caligula have survived — the works of Philo and Seneca. Philo's works, On the Embassy to Gaius and Flaccus, give some details on Caligula's early reign, but mostly focus on events surrounding the Jewish population in Judea and Egypt with whom he sympathizes.
Seneca's various works give mostly scattered anecdotes on Caligula's personality. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in AD 39 likely due to his associations with conspirators.
Additionally, the historians who wrote them are described as biased, either overly critical or praising of Caligula. A few of the contemporaneous historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus and Cluvius Rufus both wrote condemning histories on Caligula that are now lost.
Fabius Rusticus was a friend of Seneca who was known for historical embellishment and misrepresentation. Agrippina was banished by Caligula for her connection to Marcus Lepiduswho conspired against him. Gaetulicusa poet, produced a number of flattering writings about Caligula, but they are lost.
The bulk of what is known of Caligula comes from Suetonius and Cassius Dio.
Suetonius wrote his history on Caligula 80 years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over years after Caligula's death. Cassius Dio's work is invaluable because it alone gives a loose chronology of Caligula's reign.
A handful of other sources add a limited perspective on Caligula.May 30, · Julius Caesar, the”dictator for life”of the Roman Empire, is murdered by his own senators at a meeting in a hall next to Pompey’s Theatre.
The conspiracy against Caesar encompassed as . The death of Julius Caesar resulted in domino effect which resulted in the fall of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar was killed on March 15 44 BC.
His death is known as the Ides of March. Gaius Julius Caesar (/ Then fall, Caesar." The last Tsar in nominal power was Simeon II of Bulgaria, whose reign ended in This means that for two thousand years after Julius Caesar's assassination, there was at least one head of state bearing his timberdesignmag.comen: Julia c.
76–54 BC, Caesarion 47–30 BC, Augustus (adoptive) 63 BC – 14 AD. Julius Caesar was born in Rome on 12 or 13 July BC into the prestigious Julian clan. His family were closely connected with the Marian faction in Roman politics. Caesar himself progressed.
A superb general and politician, Julius Caesar (c BC – 44 BC / Reigned 46 – 44 BC) changed the course of Roman history.
Although he did not rule for long, he gave Rome fresh hope and a. Julius Caesar “Julius Caesar accomplished many things, other than his usual victories in wars against other empires (Achievements of Julius Caesar 1).” He was an orator, a historian, a statesman, a lawgiver, and an army general.