He focused on monetary expansion as a means of helping to create full employment.
The remainder of the chapter examines these. Of Human Actions in General Edit This chapter reviews some attributes of actions that are relevant to legislators who are crafting laws.
This chapter also mentions motives, which are treated more fully in Chapter The opening line of this chapter is "The business of government is to promote the happiness of the society, by punishing and rewarding" p.
Bentham sees that punishment can be used as a deterrent, or possibly retribution, to undesired acts. The degree of punishment should be proportional to the degree that the act disturbs happiness, and only material consequences, or those that affect happiness, should be considered p.
Actions that are punishable have four primary attributes: This chapter covers only the act itself and its circumstances. The act itself can be distinguished along five dimensions: Positive and negative acts refer not to the moral evaluation of acts but to types of physical action taken.
Positive acts involve motion and negative acts involve refraining from motion p. Negative acts can be absolute e. External acts are acts that involve moving the body and internal acts are acts of the mind. Thinking of something or intending to do something is an internal act.
Physically doing something is an external act p. Acts of discourse e. Transitive acts are ones that affect a foreign body e. Intransitive acts are ones that do something to oneself without affecting other people or things p.
Bentham delineates internal and external acts, saying of a man who intends to poison himself that the internal act stops and the external act begins when the glass of poison hits his lips.
Transient acts are one-time acts whereas continued acts are repeated p. Sometimes continued acts can become habits p.
Simple and complex acts are divided according to an arbitrarily long list of single acts p. Note that the issue of identifying an act as one or two acts might become relevant later when estimates of the consequences of actions are made.
The second topic of this chapter is circumstances. Bentham suggests that killing a person might be good in some circumstances p. Any object is a circumstance pp. Circumstances can alter outcomes through their effect on causation, derivation indirect causal influences; outcomes derived from the main consequencescollateral or connection co-occurring outcomes such as collateral damageand conjunct influence conjoint, or simultaneous, influences or outcomes.
Many acts occur in a context in the context of circumstances ranging from powerful to miniscule p. These circumstances should be considered according to their nature and their strength of impact p.
Bentham describes circumstances that can be aggravating or extenuating p. Intentionality Edit This chapter is a continuation of Chapter 7 and a continuation of the list of four primary attributes of actions that are punishable by legislators.
According to this chapter, good and bad are to be determined by production of pleasure or pain, and any reference to good or bad intentions is a "figurative and less proper way of speech".
Most non-utilitarians give the intentions of an act, and the intended consequences of an act special importance p. Bentham gives the example of intentionally touching a person but accidentally hurting the person, an intentional action with unintentional consequences.
Consequences cannot be intentional unless the first stage of action is intentional. In that case one of the two consequences was intentional.
A consequence is directly intentional if the planned course of action follows a series of cause-and-effect relationships, otherwise it is obliquely intentional p. An outcome is ultimately intentional if the last part of the cause-and-effect chain ends with the desired outcome, otherwise the outcome is mediately intentional pp.
An outcome is inexclusively intentional if the action produces side-effects or exclusively intentional if there are no other effects p.
Inexclusively intentional acts are conjunctively, disjunctively, or indiscriminantly intentional p. The act is conjunctive if all outcomes are intended, disjunctive if only not all outcomes are intended, or indiscriminant when either some or all outcomes are desired.Bentham's published works include: A Fragment on Government (), An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (), The Rationale of Judicial Evidence (edited by John Stuart Mill in ), and two volumes on Constitutional Code (ca.
). Bentham died in London on June 16, /5(16). Nov 15, · Jeremy Bentham's Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, a classic text in modern philosophy and jurisprudence, first published in , focuses on the principle of utility and. Jeremy Bentham An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation ( ed.) perverse, who has not on many, perhaps on most occasions of his life, deferred to it.
By the natural constitution of the human frame, on most occasions of their lives men in Bentham-Principles. Jeremy Bentham, The English Utilitarian and leader of the Philosophical Radicals, Jeremy Bentham, was born in Houndsditch, in London. He entered in Queen's College, Oxford, at the age of twelve, graduate in , and immediately entered Lincoln's Inn to study law, his father's profession.
Principles of Morals and Legislation Jeremy Bentham Glossary affection: In the early modern period, ‘affection’ could mean ‘fondness’, as it does today; but it was also often used, as it is in this work, to cover every sort of pro or con.
Jeremy Bentham An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation ( ed.) perverse, who has not on many, perhaps on most occasions of his life, deferred to it. By the natural constitution of the human frame, on most occasions of their lives men in Bentham-Principles.