Archaic period in Greece Dipylon Vase of the late Geometric period, or the beginning of the Archaic period, c. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabetmodifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century.
Homeric writings BC: The Trojan War Although the Trojan War was the subject of legend and myth in the writings of Homer, there is little doubt that some great conflict took place that resulted in Greek expansion into the coast of Asia Minor and the extension of trade into the Black Sea.
Excavations by the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann in the late 19th century revealed that the city of Troy was a prosperous center as far back as BC.
The ten-year war is believed to have taken place in the early 12th century BC.
Menelaus's brother, King Agamemnon of Mycenae, waged war to regain Helen, who was famous for her beauty. The war over Helen is the source of the saying, "the face that launched a thousand ships.
The tale centers on the battle itself, particularly on the character of the Greek hero Achilles and his personal vendetta against Hector, leader of the Trojan forces. This early tale of the triumphs and tragedies of war is considered an epic, a work that chronicles the legendary history of a nation.
His mother was the goddess Thetis, a Nereid sea nymph.
His father was Peleus, king of Thessaly and a grandson of Zeus, the lord of heaven. It was at the wedding feast of Thetis and Peleus that the goddess Eris Discord hurled among the guests a golden apple that was to cause the Trojan War.
Soon after the birth of Achilles, Thetis tried to outwit the Fates, who had foretold that war would cut down her son in his prime. So that no weapon might ever wound him, she dipped her baby in the black waters of the Styx, the river that flowed around the underworld.
Only the heel by which she held him was untouched by the magic waters, and this was the only part of his body that could be wounded. This is the source of the expression Achilles' heel, meaning a vulnerable point.
When the Trojan War began, Achilles' mother, fearing that the decree of the Fates would prove true, dressed him as a girl and hid him among the maidens at the court of the king of Scyros.
The trick did not succeed. Odysseus, the shrewdest of the Greeks, went to the court disguised as a peddler. When he had spread his wares before the girls, a sudden trumpet blast was sounded. The girls screamed and fled, but Achilles betrayed his sex by seizing a sword and spear from the peddler's stock.
Achilles joined the battle and took command of his father's men, the Myrmidons. They set an example of bravery for the other Greeks.
Then he quarreled with Agamemnon, the leader of the Greeks, over a captive whom he loved. When she was taken from him, he withdrew his followers from the fight and sulked in his tent.
As a result the Greek armies were driven back to their ships by the Trojans. At last, moved by the plight of the Greeks, Achilles entrusted his men and his armor to Patroclus, his best friend.
Thus, when Patroclus led the Myrmidons into battle, the Trojans mistook him for Achilles and fled in panic. Patroclus, however, was killed by Hector, the leader of the Trojans.
Achilles' armor became the prize of Hector. Angered and stricken by grief, Achilles vowed to kill Hector.Ancient Greece (Greek: Ἑλλάς, translit. Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c.
AD ). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek. Sep 20, · The story of the Trojan War—the Bronze Age conflict between the kingdoms of Troy and Mycenaean Greece–straddles the history and mythology of ancient .
With the rise of critical history, Troy and the Trojan War were, for a long time, consigned to the realms of legend. However, the true location of ancient Troy had from classical times remained the subject of interest and speculation. Troy is an ancient city in Turkey that has long been identified as being the setting for Homer's 'The Iliad.' Whether the Trojan War actually took place there is a matter of debate.
Troy, Greek Troia, also called Ilios or Ilion, Latin Troia, Troja, or Ilium, ancient city in northwestern Anatolia that holds an enduring place in both literature and timberdesignmag.com legend of the Trojan War is the most notable theme from ancient Greek literature and forms the basis of Homer’s timberdesignmag.comgh the actual nature and size of the historical settlement remain matters of scholarly.
Improve your knowledge on Ancient Greece for kids and find out more about history with DK Find Out for kids. History › Ancient Greece It was at war with Greece for ten years. This is known as the Trojan War. The Trojan War ›.