Conclusion There are perhaps few decisions made on behalf of students with visual impairments that are more crucial, yet subject to more confusion and controversy, than the decision regarding an appropriate reading medium. Making an initial determination of the appropriate reading medium is not a concern for those who have no visual impairment i.
History of writing The earliest example of systematic writing is the Sumerian pictographic system found on clay tablets, which eventually developed around BC into a modified version called cuneiform  which was impressed on wet clay with a sharpened reed.
Two cursive scripts were eventually created, hieraticshortly after hieroglyphs were invented, and demotic Egyptian in the seventh century BC.
The first known alphabetical system came from the Phoenicianswho developed a vowel-less system of 22 letters around the eleventh century BC. Adding vowels to the alphabet, dropping some consonants and altering the order, the Ancient Greeks developed a script which included only what we know of as capital Greek letters.
The Phoenician alphabet also influenced the Hebrew and Aramaic scripts, which follow a vowel-less system.
One Hebrew script was only used for religious literature and by a small community of Samaritans up until the sixth century BC. Handwriting styles which were used to produce manuscripts included square capitals, rustic capitalsuncials, and half-uncials. Roman cursive or informal handwriting started out as a derivative of the capital letters, though the tendency to write quickly and efficiently made the letters less precise.
This script was not as clear as the Carolingian, but instead was narrower, darker, and denser. Because of this, the dot above the i was added in order to differentiate it from the similar pen strokes of the n, m, and u.
Also, the letter u was created as separate from the v, which had previously been used for both sounds. Another variation of Carolingian minuscule was created by the Italian humanists in the fifteenth century, called by them littera antiqua and now called humanist minuscule.
A cursive form eventually developed, and it became increasingly slanted due to the quickness with which it could be written. This manuscript handwriting, called cursive humanisticbecame known as the typeface Italic used throughout Europe.
Copybooks first appeared in Italy around the sixteenth century; the earliest writing manuals were published by Sigismondo Fanti and Ludovico degli Arrighi. Engraving could better produce the flourishes in handwritten script, which helped penmanship masters to produce beautiful examples for students.
By the eighteenth century, schools were established to teach penmanship techniques from master penmen, especially in England and the United States. Chinese characters represent whole morphemes rather than individual sounds, and consequently are visually far more complex than European scripts; in some cases their pictographic origins are still visible.
The earliest form of Chinese was written on bones and shells called Jiaguwen in the fourteenth century BC.
Other writing surfaces used during this time included bronze, stone, jade, pottery, and clay, which became more popular after the twelfth century BC. Calligraphy is widely practiced in China, which employs scripts such as Kaishu standardXingshu semi-cursiveand Caoshu cursive.
Japanese writing evolved from Chinese script and Chinese characters, called kanjior ideograms, were adopted to represent Japanese words and grammar.
Hiragana is the more widely used script in Japan today, while katakana, meant for formal documents originally, is used similarly to italics in alphabetic scripts. His writing system was first published inin his book Spencer and Rice's System of Business and Ladies' Penmanship.
This " Spencerian Method " Ornamental Style was taught in American schools until the mids, and has seen a resurgence in recent years through charter schools and home schooling using revised Spencerian books and methods produced by former IAMPETH president Michael Sull born Louis Henry Hausam published the "New Education in Penmanship" incalled "the greatest work of the kind ever published.
These included those produced by A. Palmera student of Gaskell, who developed the Palmer Methodas reflected in his Palmer's Guide to Business Writing, published in Palmer Company folded in the early s.
Modern Styles include more than published textbook curricula including: Other copybook styles that are unique and do not fall into any previous categories are Smithhand, Handwriting without Tears, Ausgangsschrift, Bob Jones, etc.
Schools in East Asia[ edit ] A typical Kanji practice notebook of a 3rd grader By the nineteenth century, attention was increasingly given to developing quality penmanship in Eastern schools. Countries which had a writing system based on logographs and syllabaries placed particular emphasis on form and quality when learning.
Chinese children start by learning the most fundamental characters first and building to the more esoteric ones. Often, children trace the different strokes in the air along with the teacher and eventually start to write them on paper.
For example, in China inin order to respond to illiteracy among people, the government introduced a Romanized version of Chinese script, called Pinyin. Japanese also has simplified the Chinese characters it uses into scripts called kana.
However kanji are still used in preference over kana in many contexts, and a large part of children's schooling is learning kanji.
In the early s, handwriting was taught twice, once as calligraphy in the art section of school curricula, and then again as a functional skill in the language section. Holding the pen and guiding it across paper depends mostly upon sensory information from skin, joints and muscles of the hand and this adjusts movement to changes in the friction between pen and paper.
The changes show that cutaneous and proprioceptive feedback play a critical role in updating the motor memories and internal models that underlie handwriting. In contrast, sight provides only a secondary role in adjusting motor commands. Cursive — any style of handwriting written in a flowing cursive manner, which connects many or all of the letters in a word, or the strokes in a CJK character or other grapheme.
Studies of writing and penmanship Chirography — handwriting, its style and character Diplomatics — forensic palaeography seeks the provenance of written documents. Graphology — the study and analysis of handwriting especially in relation to human psychology.Discover ideas about Cursive Letters.
Nice Cursive Alphabet Old English Letters Lettering Tattoos, Designs And Ideas: Page 96 Number Calligraphy Flourish Calligraphy Copperplate Calligraphy Calligraphy Handwriting Handwriting Numbers Fancy Handwriting Beautiful Handwriting Fancy Numbers Fonts Number Fonts.
How to Improve Your Handwriting.
Having good handwriting is useful for writing letters and cards and filling out important paperwork. If you wish your handwriting was a little easier to read, don't worry!
There are a few techniques you can.
Beautiful Cursive Writing. Showing top 8 worksheets in the category - Beautiful Cursive Writing. Some of the worksheets displayed are Cursive practice a, Write the sentences, Featured products created by michael sull, Peterson directed handwriting, Cursive writing guide letters, Cursive alphabet, Lesson plans for advanced cursive handwriting grades 4, Rhythm and letterforms.
Aug 03, · All you have to do is tweak your penmanship a little bit and you'll have beautiful and interesting handwriting.
Beautiful writing is classy, tasteful, impressive, and attractive. How to Write Beautifully. Start with the alphabet. Grab one of those old cursive practice books that you had to use in elementary school and start.
Lower Case Cursive. Showing top 8 worksheets in the category - Lower Case Cursive. Some of the worksheets displayed are Cursive practice upper and lower case letters, Cursive alphabet practice, Lowercase handwriting work with alphabet letters a to, Letter a a a a, Cursive lower case letters, Cursive alphabet, Name lower case b, Lower and upper case cursive chart nh.
Beautiful Handwriting!: Cursive Workbook [UnityField LLC] on timberdesignmag.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. If you want your beautiful child to have beautiful handwriting, then you need to get this workbook. Beautiful Handwriting has a fun activity at the end of each lesson to keep your child happily engaged.