Bentham postulated that humans are driven by psychological hedonism and therefore because society can be described as a collection of individuals, we should aim to promote happiness and well-being for as many people in society as possible. Ever since Bentham prescribed this method of making moral decisions, there has been debate over its usefulness. In defence of its usefulness, we can observe the context in which Bentham was intending his theory to be implemented. He was interested in law reform and saw an England where the rich and the ruling classes had far more rights than those beneath them.
Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration.
Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make.
Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position.
After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience.
Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to.
A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims.
So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace.
Originality The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking.
That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought.
There will be plenty of time for that later on.
An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward see belowwill be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers see belowand will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class.
Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. Three Stages of Writing 1.The backlash to PETA brings to mind the recent complaints of Uber surge-pricing; that is, people complaining about something THAT WOULD OTHERWISE NOT EXIST.
Abortion (Marry Anne Warren “on the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion, ” and “Utilitarianism.”) Words | 7 Pages Abortion is the process by which an embryo or fetus is removed from the uterus, resulting in the termination of a pregnancy. Ethics and Society. STUDY. PLAY. Moral Skepticism is. There doesn't seem to be any method to compare the quantities of different kinds of benefits 3) There is not precise unit of happiness is best suited to making crucial decisions of Glisha's life; Thus Glisha's mother treats Glisha as a means instead of respecting her as an end.
1 Individual Decision-Making in this class we will focus on the decidedly useful and still-dominant model of rational choice.
2 Preferences and Choice Rational choice theory starts with the idea that individuals have preferences and chooseaccordingtothose.
Ourﬁrst task is to . Rule-utilitarianism, then, offers a three-tiered method for judging conduct. A particular action, such as stealing my neighbor’s car, is judged wrong since it violates a moral rule against theft.
In turn, the rule against theft is morally binding because adopting this rule produces favorable consequences for . Risks of Astronomical Future Suffering. Space colonization would likely increase rather than decrease total suffering. Because many people care nonetheless about humanity’s spread into the cosmos, we should reduce risks of astronomical future suffering without opposing others’ spacefaring dreams.