It is soluble in liquid and can be injected, snorted, ingested, or smoked. It is a central nervous system stimulant drug that increases the release of dopamine and leads to high levels of the chemical in the brain. Dopamine is responsible for the pleasure functions of the brain that relate to reward, motivation, the experience of pleasure, and motor function.
Methamphetamine Stimulants have been used medicinally for thousands of years. Chinese physicians have used ma haung, a tea made from the herb Ephedra vulgaris, as a medicinal herb for years. Chat, another stimulant, was used years ago by Roman gladiators to overcome fatigue and thus fight longer during contests Coffee has been in existence since at least A.
Coffee drinking was so widespread that coffeehouses were common in England, Arabia, and France as early as the s Other drugs used historically for medicinal purposes include opiates, alcohol, and marijuana.
Opiates were used as early as the third century B. Fermented honey mead may have been used since B. Alcohol was also used to reduce anxiety and to help insomnia sufferers fall asleep By the s, drugs were big business.
Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in South America inthe coca leaf had been chewed by the Incas in their religious ceremonies and was used as a medium for barter. As Spanish landlords realized that chewing the coca leaf reduced thirst, hunger, fatigue, and increased productivity, the practice of chewing the leaves was encouraged and soon became widespread Cocaine was extracted in Combined with the invention of the syringe in cocaine use began to increase in popularity.
The extracts from the coca leaf were used in a range of medicinal drinks including CocaCola. Opiates, cocaine, and alcohol were so widely used that, by the early s, when there was great concern with drug use, many patented medicines containing these drugs were sold on the streets by peddlers.
The ingredients of these snake oil concoctions were kept secret. No agency existed to regulate the contents or claims made about these drug cordials.
When the medical community began to question the claims made about these elixirs, the conflict led to the Pure Food and Drug Act ofwhich prohibited the distribution of food and drugs that were misbranded.
Another law that passed in the effort to control the manufacture and distribution of opiates was the Harrison Act of Inan international conference was held; at that time, Great Britain wanted to include controlling the importation of morphine, heroin, and cocaine as well.
The Harrison Act was meant to be solely a tax law and did not prevent the use or distribution of such drugs Medicinal use of marijuana can be historically dated to the year B.
There is also a documented case of physicians using marijuana on a rabies patient to control the terror and excitement that the patient suffered. In the s, American and European physicians used marijuana as a hypnotic, anticonvulsant, analgesic, and as treatment for migraine headaches, It was not until the s that marijuana became a concern in the U.
Innewspaper articles began associating marijuana use with violent crime no evidence of this existed. Commissioner of Narcotics, reported in that marijuana use was not a problem. By this time, newspaper and magazine reports of marijuana had burgeoned to include, not only violent crimes being committed, but also police interviews stating as much.
These reports were believed by the public but, in fact, there was no evidence provided to support their validity.
This concern led to the passage of the Marijuana Tax Act in This act required the registration and taxation of those importing, buying, or selling marijuana, but did not make the possession of marijuana illegal.
The Spread of Methamphetamine Use in the U. After the withdrawal of Desoxyn and methedrine from the pharmaceutical market, illicit methamphetamine laboratories emerged in San Francisco late in Motorcycle gangs took over the manufacture and distribution of methamphetamine in the mids spreading it north and south along the Pacific Coast.
By the s the use of methamphetamine had spread from the blue-collar workers to include college students, young professionals, minorities, and women.
By the s intensified law enforcement efforts that targeted the biker subculture, together with new, easier ways of producing methamphetamine, caused the production and distribution to move to the San Diego area.Ocala Rehab Facilities: Private- And Public-Funded Treatment Programs!
terials) to methamphetamine production.3 Earlier economic research by Dobkin and Nicosia () found that government eﬀorts to reduce the supply of meth precursors had only tem- porary eﬀects on the price and quality of methamphetamine available in the United States.
Dr. Hoffman's research group studies recovery from the effects of methamphetamine on decision-making using functional MRI. Better understanding of the time-course of changes in brain function during early abstinence from methamphetamine will help clinicians individualize treatment and improve chances for success.
methamphetamine will help inform readers about the harmful effects of methamphetamine abuse and will assist in prevention and treatment efforts. Alan I. Leshner, Ph.D. Director from the director National Institute on Drug Abuse U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Methamphetamine and amphetamine use is on the rise. According to data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), over 12 million people ( percent of the population) have tried methamphetamine at least once.
NSDUH also reports that approximately million people used methamphetamine in the year leading up to the survey. Methamphetamine taken intranasally has caused caudal thalamic infarctions in an abuser.
Ischemic stroke is associated with methamphetamine inhalation. In sum, much of the data suggest there is no way of establishing a “safe” or “unsafe” level of methamphetamine for a particular person, or even for the same person with repeated doses.