In recognition of this leadership the Academic Council of the University awards the above named the degree of Doctor of the University in Education. Dr Weny Leo S.
History[ edit ] Mids — From botanicals to the first synthetic drugs[ edit ] The modern pharmaceutical industry traces its roots to two sources. The first of these were local apothecaries that expanded from their traditional role distributing botanical drugs such as morphine and quinine to wholesale manufacture in the mid s.
By the late s, German dye manufacturers had perfected the purification of individual organic compounds from coal tar and other mineral sources and had also established rudimentary methods in organic chemical synthesis.
Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and amphetamine[ edit ] By the s, the profound effect of adrenal extracts on many different tissue types had been discovered, setting off a search both for the mechanism of chemical signalling and efforts to exploit these observations for the development of new drugs.
The blood pressure raising and vasoconstrictive effects of adrenal extracts were of particular interest to surgeons as hemostatic agents and as treatment for shock, and a number of companies developed products based on adrenal extracts containing varying purities of the active substance.
InJohn Abel of Johns Hopkins University identified the active principle as epinephrinewhich he isolated in an impure state as the sulfate salt.
Industrial chemist Jokichi Takamine later developed a method for obtaining epinephrine in a pure state, and licensed the technology to Parke-Davis. Parke-Davis marketed epinephrine under the trade name Adrenalin.
Injected epinephrine proved to be especially efficacious for the acute treatment of asthma attacks, and an inhaled version was sold in the United States until Primatene Mist.
While highly effective, the requirement for injection limited the use of epinephrine[ clarification needed ] and orally active derivatives were sought.
A structurally similar compound, ephedrineactually more similar to norepinephrinewas identified by Japanese chemists in the Ma Huang plant and marketed by Eli Lilly as an oral treatment for asthma. Following the work of Henry Dale and George Barger at Burroughs-Wellcome, academic chemist Gordon Alles synthesized amphetamine and tested it in asthma patients in The drug proved to have only modest anti-asthma effects, but produced sensations of exhilaration and palpitations.
Amphetamine was developed by Smith, Kline and French as a nasal decongestant under the trade name Benzedrine Inhaler. Amphetamine was eventually developed for the treatment of narcolepsypost-encephalitic parkinsonismand mood elevation in depression and other psychiatric indications.
It received approval as a New and Nonofficial Remedy from the American Medical Association for these uses in and remained in common use for depression until the development of tricyclic antidepressants in the s. It was sold by Bayer under the trade name Veronal InHermann Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering disclosed their discovery that diethylbarbituric acid, formed from the reaction of diethylmalonic acid, phosphorus oxychloride and urea, induces sleep in dogs.
The discovery was patented and licensed to Bayer pharmaceuticalswhich marketed the compound under the trade name Veronal as a sleep aid beginning in Systematic investigations of the effect of structural changes on potency and duration of action led to the discovery of phenobarbital at Bayer in and the discovery of its potent anti-epileptic activity in Phenobarbital was among the most widely used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy through the s, and as ofremains on the World Health Organizations list of essential medications.
Today, amphetamine is largely restricted to use in the treatment of attention deficit disorder and phenobarbital in the treatment of epilepsy. InOskar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering found that diabetes could be induced in dogs by surgical removal of the pancreas.
InCanadian professor Frederick Banting and his student Charles Best repeated this study, and found that injections of pancreatic extract reversed the symptoms produced by pancreas removal.
Soon, the extract was demonstrated to work in people, but development of insulin therapy as a routine medical procedure was delayed by difficulties in producing the material in sufficient quantity and with reproducible purity. The researchers sought assistance from industrial collaborators at Eli Lilly and Co.
Walden of Eli Lilly and Company found that careful adjustment of the pH of the extract allowed a relatively pure grade of insulin to be produced.Study on Consumer Sales promotion of Apparel retail stores - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free.5/5(4).
The European Starch Industry Association, Starch Europe, is the trade association which represents the interests of the EU starch industry both at European and international level.
INTRODUCTION There are a lot of investment avenues available today in the financial market for an investor with an investable surplus. He can invest in Bank Deposits, Corporate Debentures, and Bonds where there is low risk but low return.
The statistic presents responses business-to-business and business-to-customer marketers from around the world gave when asked about the most important social media platform for their business. As. The pharmaceutical industry is an important component of health care systems throughout the world; it is comprised of many public and private organizations that discover, develop, manufacture and market medicines for human and animal health (Gennaro ).
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