The challenge to achieving a fair and equitable health care essay

Safety, Security and Uniformed Groups in all schools 2.

The challenge to achieving a fair and equitable health care essay

The study undertaken by Lowe and Felchcited in Abdurham and Hurd, highlighted that the behaviours the posed the most problems included aggressiveness, disturbing noises, wandering away, sexual delinquency and temper tantrums.

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Self-injuries behaviour was defined by Murphy and Wilsonpg. Physical harm includes bruising, lacerations, bleeding, bone fractures, breakages and other tissue damage.

Causes of self-harm may be triggered by family issues, relationship break up, history of sexual, mental and physical abuse. An act of self-harm is often described by service users as a coping mechanism and a distraction that may bring relief.

In most cases it will bring on feelings of disgust and shame Chapman et al. The World Health Organisation WHO, evidence base recommendations for management of self-harm includes removing the means of self-harm, regular contact with the person who is self-harming, adopt a problem solving approach, provide social support, hospitalization for person who self-harms, reducing access to the means of the suicide, reducing the availability of drugs and alcohol and responsible media reporting.

When undertaking a functional assessment the aim is to capture pertinent information in all of the environments and situations where the behaviour occurs.


By conducting it in this manner it may elevate the ecological validity of the resulting assessment data and also increase the possibility that the assessment results will capture the range of antecedents and consequences that are influencing the person to behave in that manner Sigafoos and Arthur et al.

The functional assessment can be sub-divided or categorised into an indirect assessment method or a direct assessment method. The indirect assessment method include rating scales and interview methods due to the fact it does not require direct observation when the person is presenting with the CB.

The three main objectives of the behavioural interview are to establish the description of the behaviour s i. Therefore for best practice the interview should entail probes that are specific in identifying features of the CB, in which circumstance the behaviour occurs or does The challenge to achieving a fair and equitable health care essay occur and the reactions of persons in the immediate environment when witnessing the CB Sigafoos and Arthur et al.

This tool consists of questions about the physical condition of the person, their mood and the precipitating factors for social interactions.

It also entails the dubiety on how recent the conditions or interactions occurred. Example questions within this checklist aim to identify whether the person presenting with the CB was informed of a change in conditions than their norm, are they tired and suffering from lethargy or have they been assigned new to oversee their care and they are unfamiliar with.

There are other indirect assessment tools which are useful to use for practitioners to identify the potential consequences in maintaining CB. These include the Motivation Assessment Scale MAS which was created by Durrand and Crimmins and has a series of 16 questions which aim to establish and help the practitioner in determining whether the behaviour is related to attention, escape, tangible or sensory.

When undertaking the various indirect assessments it is of paramount importance that practitioners endeavour to get answers to four key questions about the behaviour. These are in which condition does it occur or most frequently occur, are there times when it rarely or never occurs, establishment of events and interactions that are in occurrence when the behaviour begins and what can be implemented to stop the behaviour Sigafoos and Arthur et al.

When conducting the various direct assessments it is important to translate these into observable behaviours before commencing the observation. The reasons being that it allows for more reliable observations, provides clarity of the behaviour that needs changing and lastly it allows throughout the intervention process an evaluation of the CB.

If the desired outcome is not achieved then the type of intervention can be adapted or changed to reach the desired goal. These tools enable the practitioner to observe the person during their regular daily routines and note when the CB is most prevalent. In addition to this the practitioner can systematically structure the environment and measuring the accompanying changes in behaviour Sigafoos and Arthur et al.

Scatterplot assessments have been described by Touchette et al. This method allows the practitioner to identify during the day when the behaviour occurs but is designed not to identify the precursors that evoke or motivate the CB and should be used in conjunction with indirect assessment methods to formulate a hypothesis as to why the person in engages in CB.

The design of the Scatterplot is simple in nature and entails time periods on the vertical axis and days on the horizontal axis.

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Once the Scatterplot is completed it enable the practitioner to identify visually when high and low risk situations occur. Within the recorded description there are the antecedents and consequences of that behaviour and what the person done in each instance, followed by a description of what was occurring when the behaviour initiated.

The format of this tool entails the number of instances that occurred, what was happening at the time, what behaviour was perceived as a problem and what happened in response to the behaviour. The observer needs to be adept and significant effort and time needs to be allocated to formulate a clear picture of the CB.

The number of conditions can vary but usually there are four. The contents are determined on an individual basis which have been sourced from previous interviews and observations.

In this section there will be an exploration of the key drivers in the CB arena which endeavour to provide equitable treatment to persons with challenging behaviours. Professor Jim Mansell has achieved great accolades nationally as well as respect in the field of learning disability and community care.

The report entailed good practice within services but also highlighted bad practice.

The challenge to achieving a fair and equitable health care essay

The personalisation agenda was included as well as 33 recommendations across areas such as health, wheelchairs, assistive technologies and day activities Mencap, The Valuing People Now document is a three year strategy for people with learning disabilities and particularly sets out to address what people have told the government about the type of support needed for people with learning disabilities and their families.

The vision and key messages in this document remain the same as set out in the Valuing Peoplecited in Department of Health, document.

Within the document it mentions that people with learning disabilities are entitled to the same rights and choices as anybody else, have the right to be treated with respect and dignity, have the same chances and responsibilities as everyone else and family carers and families of people with learning disabilities have the right to same hopes and choices of other families.

The new strategy entails key components that further strengthen its commitments to people with learning disabilities and is now more inclusive of a multitude of people whom were least often heard and most often excluded.

Examples include the Black Minority Ethnic BME groups, people with complex needs, offenders whom were incarcerated or in the community and people suffering from autistic spectrum disorders Department of Health, The report entails the key challenges that the government is facing which include increasing demographic pressure as people are living longer and may experience more complex conditions as they get older, the change in family structures and how this impacts on families, the changing of expectations and the increasing choice which this demands and financial pressures.Tanya D’Souza, Supreme Court of Victoria, and Laura Griffin, Nicole Shackleton, and Danielle Watt, all of La Trobe Law School, have published Harming Women with Words: The Failure of Australian Law to Prohibit Gendered Hate Speech at 41 UNSW Law Journal ().

Here is the abstract. Environmental ethics is the discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human beings to, and also the value and moral status of, the environment and its non-human contents.

WOA! World Population Awareness is a non-profit web publication seeking to inform people about overpopulation, unsustainability, and overconsumption; the impacts, including depletion of natural resources, water, oil, soil, fertilizers, species loss, malnutrition, poverty, displacement of people, conflict; and what can be done about it: women's advancement, education, reproductive health care.

Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.

Human Resource Management is . Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience.

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