Applications[ edit ] Peak load leveling[ edit ] The concept allows V2G vehicles to provide power to help balance loads by "valley filling" charging at night when demand is low and " peak shaving " sending power back to the grid when demand is high, see duck curve. Peak load leveling can enable utilities new ways to provide regulation services keeping voltage and frequency stable and provide spinning reserves meet sudden demands for power. In future development, it has been proposed that such use of electric vehicles could buffer renewable power sources such as wind powerfor example, by storing excess energy produced during windy periods and providing it back to the grid during high load periods, thus effectively stabilizing the intermittency of wind power. Some see this application of vehicle-to-grid technology as a renewable energy approach that can penetrate the baseline electric market.
Biochar can be produced at many scales including cookstoves, distributed combined heat and power CHP units, and large-scale biorefineries. Flexibility in feedstock and scale of operation are seen to provide for a wide degree of technological appropriateness and can be selected and optimized based on regional biomass availability and infrastructural development Lehmann and Joseph, Slow pyrolysis is typically used to maximize for syngas or biochar production.
It usually contains relatively high water content which makes it highly corrosive, thus bio-oil of significantly lesser quality than petroleum. Typically bio-oil is gasified, refined into higher quality fuel, or turned into chemical feedstock material.
Waste heat from biochar production can be utilized for cooking, space heating, industrial processes, or cooling with absorptive refrigeration technologies. Biochar can be combusted rather than incorporated into soils in order to increase net energy output; however, this would greatly reduce net avoided C emissions Gaunt and Lehmann, Other methods of biochar production beyond pyrolysis include gasification, hydrothermal conversion, torrefaction and carbonization.
These methods typically have lower biomass-to-biochar conversion rates than pyrolysis. Quantifying the net energy of the process through a life cycle analysis LCA is necessary to determine the energy efficiency of the process.
The overall efficiency and economic feasibility are highly constrained by the transport of biomass. For instance, if one fleet of trucks are used for collection of biomass and another for distribution of biochar this would imply that for every one mile in distance from the pyrolysis plant, four miles of transportation costs must be traveled.
The above consideration implies that distributed, on-farm, mobile and village-scale approaches to biochar production will have comparative advantages over large-scale biorefineries despite apparent gains by scales-of-economy.
A network of distributed combined heat and power CHP pyrolysis units may promising strategy for offsetting coal generation with carbon negative electricity from biomass Laird, The properties of the resulting biochar and syngas are heavily determined by feedstock material, temperature, and residence times.
Schematic diagram of fast pyrolysis system Dr. Robert Brown Iowa State University Fast pyrolysis takes advantage of a swift biomass-to-biochar reaction which has been used primarily used to convert biomass into bio-oils and secondarily to produce biochar.
But fast pyrolysis typically also comes with a cost. Critical to fast pyrolysis and liquid fuel production from pyrolysis is the refinement and upgrading of bio-oil. Presently, bio-oil is not an altogether high quality product: Thus, refinement is necessary to turn the turn the low-grade bio-oil into a product that can be shipped, stored, and used more easily.
After refinement the bio-oil is most suitable for stationary applications such as heating oil, as opposed to a transport fuel which requires higher grade and more consistent product. Advancements are being made and new pyrolysis systems developed for creating higher grade fuels that could be able to replace transport motor fuels.
Dynamotive's fast pyrolysis plant in Guelph, Ontario Courtesy Dynamotive Dynamotive LLC, based out of Vancouver, Canada, is one of the leading companies investing in fast pyrolysis technologies. Because the gasification is optimized for total energy output the biomass is typically reduced to ash instead of biochar as additional oxygen to the burn cycle allows for more complete combustion.
Diagram of gasification; notice pyrolysis occuring above and prior to gasification before the biomass is exposed to oxygen Courtesy Ecoprods. Modified gasifier made to increase biochar production from poultry litter on Mr.
The process allows for the optimization of syngas production by adding steam into the reaction chamber during pyrolization which liberates greater quanitities of syngas, mostly in the form of hydrogen.
Tony Bridgwater of Aston University. Intermediate pyrolysis is a new concept and therefore is not in widespread use. Further, there is relatively little literature on it, and I am not aware of any private companies actively working on this type of system.
The technology is still quite nascent with only a handful of demonstration facilities, from what I have seen. I do not know about microwave pyrolysis, but some general principles of heating with microwave radiation may be helpful.
The efficiency with which the targeted material actually absorbs the microwave radiation depends significantly on the moisture content of the material: If there is too few polar molecules typical moisture from water little to no heating will occur; whereas if there is a significant amount of excess polar molecules, an excessive amount of time and energy is required to heat the material.
Efficiency is also signficantly determined by the extent to which microwave radiation can pass through the material. If the material too large or impenetrable by radiation differential heating is likely to occur.
Important research questions, therefore, for microwave pyrolysis are figuring out the ideal moisture content and size of various feedstock materials in order to maximize heating efficiency. Despite the inherent initial energy costs of converting electricity into microwave radiation, microwave heating benefits from the fact that it is very effecient at only heating the material which is targeted, microwave chamber walls and exterior surfaces are not directly heated though they can absorb blackbody heat being reradiated from the heated material.
Biochar typically contain somewhere between megajoules per kilogram of energy so why not simply burn it to replace fossil fuels? This is an important question to address because it significantly affects the amount of carbon which can be sequestered from the process. It is expected that the various benefits of applying biochar to soils will likely outweigh the benefits of burning it to replace fossil fuels.
Despite more than three decades of research and hundreds of billions of dollars of research money, there remain but a handful of plants using CCS technologies causing many to wonder about the feasibility mitigating CO2 emissions from coal in the short-term.
CHP is extremely efficient because waste heat from the process is used to heat nearby homes and buildings thereby increasing the overall efficiency of the process. The difference is that instead of using an electrical compressor to change the refrigerant back to a liquid, the absorption chiller uses heat to drive this process, typically uses ammonia as opposed to hydrofluorocarbons, and has no moving parts.Note – the above figures are provisional – but near enough – they will be finalised in the next two weeks.
DA – 31 October (This is a draft paper) Waste Compliance Directive – WID All waste combustion plants must meet the Waste Compliance Directive – typically the plants concerned are half WID limits.
The wood gasifier capable of powering up to a 10KW generator on dry wood or other biomass material. The L.E.A.F. Generator gasifier is a solid steel construction with powder coat finish, made in the USA. “Low-temperature slow pyrolysis offers an energetically efficient strategy for bioenergy production.” Dr.
John Gaunt Director GY Associates & Cornell University The process of making biochar is called "pyrolysis." Pyrolysis offers an efficient and sustainable means of generating energy from biomass while simultaneously sequestering carbon from the atmosphere in the form of biochar.
The Global Alliance For Clean Cookstoves is a public-private initiative to save lives, improve livelihoods, empower women, and protect the environment by creating a thriving global market for clean and efficient household cooking solutions.
Over papers, posters, reports and articles produced on biomass production, cropping systems, bioenergy production, biobased economy and sustainability. The paper focuses on proper use of wood chips in an optimum way for cooking purpose by gasification process.
Gasification, a well proven technology in the field of energy, is the process of converting solid biomass like wood chips into gaseous fuel (Syngas).